The practice of CCW is technically legal in many jurisdictions in Canada; however, in practice, it is often not permitted through the refusal to issue permits. This is the legal situation for Canadians, where an Authorization to Carry (ATC) exists, but the Provincial Chief Firearm Officers have agreed not to issue such licenses. Concealment of the firearm is only permitted if specifically stipulated in the terms of the ATC (thus this would then be a specific class of ATC, specifically an ATC-3 or type 3) and is in practice nearly impossible to obtain.
In Canada, for wilderness protection, individuals may receive limited licenses to permit open carry called ATC-2, but only within specific highly restrictive uninhabited areas. There must be sufficient reason to believe the life of the individual could be endangered if not permitted to carry, due to bear or other wildlife activity, and additionally that they would not be feasibly able to carry a long arm Non-restricted Firearm due to other equipment. In practice, the policy toward carrying while hunting has been a complete ban since 1979. CFO staff have been variously quoted as stating "If you can shoot it with a rifle, you can finish it with a rifle." On these grounds, the known number of ATCs issued in any Province has remained very low.
In the case of ATCs issued for wilderness purposes, the typical restrictions in Canada are that the firearm be visible at all times (it is an offence in the Canadian Criminal Code to carry any concealed weapon) and may not be worn within five kilometers of any city limit. This has the effect of further limiting the utility of any issued ATC, and thoroughly restricting it only to wilderness locations. Applicants for an ATC for wilderness purposes typically number in the hundreds, and concealed permit holders (ATC-3) are nearly non-existent. Ontario (the most populous Canadian province at 13 million) serves as an apt example: 13 ATC-3 were active and issued in that province as of 2005.